Category: Electricians

How To Handle Common New Electric Circuits Problems In Your Home

How To Handle Common New Electric Circuits Problems In Your Home

Electrical circuit-interrupters

Electrical circuit-interrupters, such as AFCI’s (arc-fault circuit-interrupters) and GFCI’s (ground-fault circuit-interrupters), are devices required by the National Electrical Code (NEC) that are designed specifically to help prevent fires and electric shock. When installed as required, AFCIs and GFCIs significantly reduce accidents that naturally result in physical loss, electrical shock, and even death.

AFCIs (arc-fault circuit-interrupters)

AFCIs are required by the NEC to be installed within all dwelling units. Typically, they are special AFCI circuit breakers that can be found within your electrical panel or receptacles in the wall.

So, what do AFCIs do? AFCIs are designed to detect arcing electrical faults within your electrical system that may otherwise go unnoticed, until they potentially result in a fire. Arc-faults can be caused by things as innocent as putting a nail in the wall to hang a picture or plugging in an appliance with a defective electrical cord. If a nail makes contact with an electrical wire or a cord has a defect, arcing can happen, and is rarely ever seen. An AFCI device, however, will sense abnormal arcing on the electrical system and open the circuit when detected.

Key points about AFCIs:

All AFCIs should be installed by a qualified electrician.

Homes that were built prior to AFCI’s being required by the NEC, or homes built in states whose electrical codes do not follow the NEC arc-fault requirements, may not have arc-fault interrupters installed.  While AFCI’s may not currently be installed in your home, ask a licensed electrician to install AFCI protection for your safety.

All AFCIs should be tested at initial installation and monthly, at minimum, thereafter to make sure they are working properly.

GFCIs (ground-fault circuit-interrupters)

GFCIs have been required by the NEC since 1971. Initially they were required for all outdoor receptacles, and bathrooms were added as a requirement in 1975. According to ESFI, the required areas for GFCI’s have grown since then based on the immense success they have had in reduction of electrocutions. Since their implementation in 1971, there has been an 83 percent drop in electrocutions, and a 95% drop in electrocutions caused specifically by consumer products.


How to Replace a Circuit Breaker

Circuit breakers last a long time so you should check your other options before deciding that issue is a faulty breaker. The breaker may need to be replaced if it trips very easily, doesn’t trip when it should, can’t be reset, is hot to the touch, or looks or smells burnt. If you can’t figure out the underlying issue or don’t feel knowledgeable or experienced enough to do the repair yourself, call a professional electrician. Working with electricity is dangerous, and it’s better to be safe than sorry.

When replacing a circuit breaker, you will need:

New circuit breaker (same brand, make, model and size as the one you’re removing)

Rubber mat or plywood to stand on (this insulates you against electrical shock)

Insulated flashlight or independent light source

Insulated screwdriver

Insulated wire strippers

Cable connectors to connect the circuit breaker to the main panel

Voltage tester

Here’s how to replace your circuit breaker:

Shut off the branch circuit breakers one at a time.

Shut off the main circuit breaker.

Test all the wires with a voltage tester to make sure they’re dead before proceeding.

Remove the panel cover.

Disconnect the wire of the breaker you’re removing from the load terminal.

Carefully pry out the old breaker, paying careful attention to how it’s positioned.

Insert the new breaker and push it into position.

Attach the circuit’s wire to the load terminal. Strip a bit of insulation off the wires, if necessary.

Inspect the panel for any other problems. Tighten any loose terminals.

Replace the panel cover.

Turn on the main breaker.

Turn on the branch breakers one by one.

Test the breakers with a voltage tester to make sure everything is in order


Fundamentals of Electricity

Branch Circuits

A branch circuit is defined as that part of an electric circuit extending beyond the last circuit breaker or fuse. The branch circuits start at the breaker box and extend to the electrical devices connected to the service. Branch circuits are the last part of the circuit supplying electrical devices. These circuits are classified in two different ways, according to the type of loads they serve or according to their current-carrying capacity.

General purpose branch circuits are 120 volts circuits used for supplying lighting fixtures and receptacle outlets for most small portable appliances. There are usually a number of general purpose branch circuits supplying lights and outlets in different rooms around a residence or commercial or industrial building.

Circuits rated for a maximum of 15 amps using 14 gauge wire were common in older homes but are no longer recommended in new installations. Circuits rated for a maximum of 20 amps using 12 gauge wire are recommended for general purpose branch circuits in modern electrical wiring systems.

Appliance branch circuits are 120 volts circuits used for supplying fixed electric equipment such as refrigerators, washers, and other large appliances and electrical devices. Appliance branch circuits do not supply any lighting fixtures. Appliance branch circuits can not exceed 20 amps.

Installed in permanent locations such as an electric range, a clothes dryer, or an air conditioner. These circuits usually lead directly from the distribution panel to the appliance and do not serve any other electrical devices. These circuits can be any amperage size.


An electrician’s guide on how to fix a tripped fuse

Any kind of major electrical fault around the house will need to be repaired by a professional electrician. However, that said, there are a few everyday electrical tasks that aren’t complicated, or dangerous, which you could attempt yourself. The most important thing to remember is to switch off and unplug whatever it is you need to work on so there’s no danger of a live current.

The first thing to do is find your main fuse box (these days called a consumer unit), which will be in the same place as your electricity meter. They’re often in the main hallway of a house, in a purpose-built cupboard. This is where the electricity in your house is controlled from, and it’s important that you know where to go and what to do if you need to turn off the mains electricity. It’s also helpful to remember where you left a torch too

In the case of loss of electric light or power

Your fuse box, or consumer unit, will either have fuses or trip switches. Modern electric circuits are fitted with a circuit breaker fuse system; if a fault develops, a switch is tripped and the circuit is broken. Older ones have fuse holders and when a fuse is blown it must be replaced or rewired.

If you experience problems with an old-fashioned fuse box, it might be sensible to install a replacement which conforms to current regulations for ease, safety and peace of mind. If you need assistance with any kind of electrical installation we would recommend calling out a qualified electrician.

Setting a trip switch

Open the cover on the consumer unit to see which switches have tripped to the OFF position. Put them back to the ON position. If tripping occurs again, it is probably being caused by a faulty appliance. You need to identify which circuit is affected and which appliance on that circuit is causing the problem.


What is an Electric Circuit?

the concept of electric potential difference was discussed. Electric potential is the amount of electric potential energy per unit of charge that would be possessed by a charged object if placed within an electric field at a given location. The concept of potential is a location-dependent quantity – it expresses the quantity of potential energy on a per charge basis such that it is independent on the amount of charge actually present on the object possessing the electric potential. Electric potential difference is simply the difference in electric potential between two different locations within an electric field

To illustrate the concept of electric potential difference and the nature of an electric circuit, consider the following situation. Suppose that there are two metal plates oriented parallel to each other and each being charged with an opposite type of charge – one being positive and the other being negative. This arrangement of charged plates would create an electric field in the region between the plates that is directed away from the positive plate and towards the negative plate

A positive test charge placed between the plates would move away from the positive plate and towards the negative plate. This movement of a positive test charge from the positive plate to the negative plate would occur without the need of energy input in the form of work; it would occur naturally and thus lower the potential energy of the charge. The positive plate would be the high potential location and the negative plate would be the low potential location. There would be a difference in electric potential between the two locations

Now suppose that the two oppositely charged plates are connected by a metal wire. What would happen? The wire serves as a sort of charge pipe through which charge can flow. Over the course of time, one could think of positive charges moving from the positive plate through the charge pipe (wire) to the negative plate. That is, positive charge would naturally move in the direction of the electric field that had been created by the arrangement of the two oppositely charged plates. As a positive charge leaves the upper plate, the plate would become less positively charged as illustrated in the animation at the right. As a positive charge reaches the negative plate, that plate would become less negatively charged

Over the course of time, the amount of positive and negative charge on the two plates would slowly diminish. Since the electric field depends upon the amount of charge present on the object creating the electric field, the electric field created by the two plates would gradually diminish in strength over the course of time. Eventually, the electric field between the plates would become so small that there would be no observable movement of charge between the two plates. The plates would ultimately lose their charge and reach the same electric potential. In the absence of an electric potential difference, there will be no charge flow.

About Electrical Maintenance

About Electrical Maintenance

The importance of preventive maintenance

The term ‘if it’s not broken, don’t fix it’ still applies to many industries. But due to increasing costs of downtime, we want to emphasize on the benefits of preventive maintenance.

Operator and machine safety

By performing a regular preventive maintenance, you are assured your equipment remains to operate under safe conditions, both for the machine and the operators.  Possible issues can be nipped in the but before they have a chance to cause harm.

Machine efficiency

Normal wear and tear can result in lower machine efficiency. Preventive maintenance assures optimal working conditions and conserves the life span of the equipment.

Time savings

A planned preventive maintenance may cause small hindrance for production, but that is nothing compared to actual downtime caused by a breakdown. Because it is planned, production can propose the optimal time and can factor in the nuisance. Preventative maintenance procedures take less time than emergency repairs and replacements.


Implementing a preventive maintenance program

Preventative maintenance for your heating and air conditioning systems keeps the facility environment at healthy temperature, humidity and air quality levels for equipment, chemicals, product inventory and people. Preventative maintenance plans include parts, emergency repairs and, when required, entire replacements. Properly done, preventive maintenance can:

  • Minimize downtime and comfort issues
  • Extend equipment life
  • Ensure equipment reliability
  • Reduce operating costs
  • Maximize efficiency



Electrical equipment malfunctions and failures are responsible for million dollar losses to facilities, industries and businesses worldwide. As an equipment starts to display signs of electrical aging, it should act as a trigger for the employer or owner to carry out preventive maintenance to avoid catastrophic failure.

The NFPA 70B provides general guidelines for the implementation of a useful maintenance plan by breaking it down into six major categories.


All kinds of electrical equipment eventually begin to portray symptoms from aging. An effective maintenance plan can reduce the downtime of the facility by scheduling proper outages coinciding with routine maintenance activities. For the safety of the equipment as well as the personnel on site, OSHA recommends regular preventive maintenance for the equipment being operated under hazardous conditions.



Electrical power systems studies are an integral part of an effective equipment maintenance program. They provide valuable information for the reliability assessment of the system.


Improved Reliability

Preventive maintenance can also help a company to be a more reliable business partner. Customers can count on a company to deliver products, materials, or service on time, without unnecessary delays. A resort with broken air conditioning will not succeed for long. By always offering a reliable product or service, a company can enhance its customer service and improve its reputation.

Conservation of Assets

Most equipment these days is certainly not cheap, but the better a company cares for its equipment, the longer it will last. Preventive maintenance will prolong the life of equipment so a company can get more hours out the equipment, resulting in reduced costs and increased profit.

The numerous benefits of preventive maintenance has caused many maintenance managers to shift from reactive maintenance to a regular, routine preventive maintenance plan meant to prevent problems and optimize equipment. Today’s CMMS software helps facilitate preventive maintenance by helping schedule maintenance tasks and keep organized records of all inspections and fixes. Preventive maintenance is the best option for companies that want to succeed long term, and therefore understand that they need a long term plan for proper equipment upkeep.



There are two primary benefits from implementing effective preventive maintenance in a facility:

  • The direct benefits of preventive maintenance programs in the reduced costs of repairs and minimized or eliminated downtime and
  • Safety for personnel and property damage. The first item is far easier to measure than the second, as it is hard to predict how a failure in electrical equipment may cause injury or death, but it can happen. Chapter 2 of NFPA 70E, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, provides important safety-related maintenance requirements. An effective preventive maintenance program provides various management responsibilities that will help keep repair and replacement costs down and production at desired levels.

Developing an effective program

Good economic judgment is necessary for developing an effective electrical preventive maintenance program. As indicated earlier, two objectives of such a program should be focused on enhancing safety and reducing equipment failure and loss. A crucial element is having responsible and qualified personnel to understand and implement the program. The program should include regular inspections, periodic testing and servicing of equipment, and effective record-keeping. When developing an electrical preventive maintenance program, a thorough survey and analysis will identify equipment and systems that are essential and will itemize them into a hierarchy of importance. Once the priorities are established, appropriate schedules can be developed. There are four basic steps that should be taken to develop an electrical preventive maintenance program. First, compile a list of electrical equipment in the facility. Second, determine which equipment is most critical for the operation. Third, implement a monitoring system for length of use and duty cycles, and identify signs of failure or fatigue. And fourth, determine the staffing needs and expertise of personnel that will perform the service and maintenance operations.

Generator Installation And Electrical Panel Upgrades Help Beat Blackouts

Generator Installation And Electrical Panel Upgrades Help Beat Blackouts

Signs it’s Time to Upgrade Your Home’s Electrical Panel

Faulty wiring issues

Faulty wiring is one of the leading causes of residential fires in the United States. The risk of a fire caused by faulty wiring dramatically increases based on how old your house is. Older wiring may not meet code, and wire insulation and other materials tend to deteriorate over time. Have a professional electrician inspect the wiring in your electrical panel and throughout your home

Installing new appliances

We’re not talking about a new blender or toaster here. If you plan on installing a new hot tub, air conditioner, refrigerator, or other machine that consumes lots of energy, your electrical panel may not have enough power to keep those appliances going

Replacing fuses with circuit breakers

Fuses and circuit breakers both essentially perform the same function: they prevent short circuit or overload by disrupting (or breaking) electrical currents that channel to any connected devices. Fuses, however, are one-time use. When they detect that a current is running at too high of a level, the fuse will melt, interrupting the flow of electricity. Circuit breakers simply have to be reset

Excessive use of extension cords and power strips

If you find yourself plugging nearly everything into one power outlet via power strips and extension cords, it’s a good idea to upgrade your electrical panel. You can allow each circuit to run straight from the panel or install a new electrical outlet and circuit, minimizing the fire hazard.

Planning ahead

Who knows the types of devices and appliances we’ll be using ten or twenty years from now? If you’re already remodeling or upgrading your home, it’s a good idea to invest in some quality wiring, namely structured wiring, which consists of heavy-duty cables that enable the latest features in all your electrical devices. Structured wiring will also increase your home’s value.


Electrical Panel Upgrades: Do You Need One?

Over time, things break or get old it is inevitable. There’s a good chance your electrical panel is painfully obsolete compared to current day technology. You may even need to upgrade your entire electrical panel. But what exactly is an electrical panel and how do you know when it’s time for a modern-day update?

Well, if you’ve had any difficulties with appliances working correctly or frequently blow fuses, it may be time to upgrade your system, but there are many indicators pointing you towards improving your electrical panel that you might not even be aware of.

What is an Electrical Panel?

An electrical panel is a central location in your establishment that connects all of the electrical wirings from both the interior and the exterior areas of your building. This also includes any installation that was added by your electric service provider. You might also call this your breaker or fuse box and is where you go whenever you need to turn the breakers on or off when you’ve lost power during a thunderstorm. Your electrical panel likely has a “main” circuit that controls your entire building’s electricity, but they also have individual breakers dedicated to the various parts of your building. Each should be correctly labeled so that you can accurately identify the area of your professional space that is affected.

Why Should I Upgrade or Replace My Electrical Panel?

Most electrical panels made to support a small machine shop are made to operate at around 350 amps. However, as technology grows, power requirements will also continue to increase, and most modern spaces require more power than they were built to provide. If you’re not sure about the electrical capacity of your current electrical panel, look on the inside of the panel door. In most cases, your electrical panel will have a tag which lists the panel’s maximum voltage, current, and power dissipation capability for the panel and busses. Without a properly functioning electrical panel, you not only run the risk of electrical fires, but this could also affect access control systems, employee productivity, and video surveillance cameras which could result in a loss of revenue and/or compromise your workforce’s safety.

How Do I Know It’s Time For A New Electrical Panel?

If your building is more than 20 or 30 years old, you may need to make improvements to your electrical panel or, at the very least, schedule an appointment with a trusted electrician to look into it for you.



In terms of importance, your electrical system is easily one of the most important components of your home, and your electrical panel is one of the key components in its function. Your electrical panel is critical to your electrical system, as it is responsible for taking the power from the line outside your home and distributing it throughout your home to where it’s needed, but if your electrical panel is older, damaged, or just a bit outdated, it might not be able to perform its function as safely and effectively as you would like. Upgrading your electrical panel is something that every homeowner is likely going to have to do at some point in time during the life of their home, but many homeowners don’t know the signs that indicate that your home is due for one. To help with that, our team of professional Fallbrook electricians have taken the time to put together this short list that will help you determine whether or not the time is right for an electrical panel upgrade for your home.

Your Breakers Trip Constantly

While the circuit breakers in your electrical panel are designed to trip when they are overloaded to help prevent them from overheating and prevent damage to your home, if your breakers are tripping what seems like constantly, it is a pretty clear indication that there’s a problem. Breakers that constantly trip are most often a sign that your electrical panel just isn’t equipped to distribute the amount of power your home needs for its normal function, and your breaker will usually trip in order to protect itself. While technically, this means that your breaker is working like it should, if your breakers are constantly tripping, the best solution is to upgrade to a new electrical panel that is designed to cope with the electrical needs of your home.

Breakers That Won’t Stay On

Resetting a circuit breaker after it trips is usually a fairly easy task, but if you find that your breakers won’t stay on, even after resetting them, it is usually a sign of a larger problem that is going to require the attention of an electrician. Usually, this is simply an indication that there is something wrong with that particular circuit, but sometimes, it can indicate a problem with your panel as a whole, and if that’s the case, the best bet is going to be to have a professional come in and provide you with an upgrade

Your System Has Fuses

Fuses were a standard feature in electrical panels for homes for a number of years, but by today’s standards, they are quite outdated, and can even be unsafe to have in your home. Fuses were designed for a time when the electrical demand in the average home was much lower, and as that demand continues to increase and increase year after year, having fuses in your home becomes that much more dangerous. When a fuse blows, it doesn’t always cut off the electricity to that circuit in your panel, which can be a very serious fire hazard. If you still have fuses in place, it is high time that you call in the professionals and have them upgrade your electrical panel to something a bit more contemporary.


Give Your Home An Electrifying Upgrade

What’s the capacity of your service panel?

Electrical panels are one of those things that just work until they don’t. Most homeowners know how to reset a circuit breaker that trips, but few people besides electricians give the industrial grey box in the garage or laundry room much thought until the lights go out

Why do amps even matter?

Amps are a measure of how much electricity can flow through a circuit. Your home is divided into multiple circuits, which all meet at the service panel.

Advantages of a 200 Amp Service Panel


An upgraded service panel can let your home electrical system use more power safely. Even if you aren’t tripping the breakers right now, a 100 amp panel in a modern home is running far too close to capacity to be safe for long term use.

More Circuits

Even if your current system has a total capacity to meet your home’s needs, the individual circuits are often limited. Smaller service panels have less room for circuits, and those circuits are usually rated for lower amp draw than larger panels

Room to Grow

If you’re considering any major home upgrades like a backyard pool  or a basement bar, upgrading to a 200 amp service panel will give your power to spare. It’s also a good starting point if you’re planning to upgrade your office or home theater, which can be major power sinks even with modern equipment.


Is It Time for an Electrical Panel Upgrade?

Did you know that from 2012 to 2016, eight in 10 home fires in the US involved electrical malfunctions? These fires caused a yearly $1.3 billion in property damage within that period. Each year, they resulted in 440 fatalities and another 1,250 injuries.

The Electrical Panel Is as Old as Your 40-Year-Old House

In the US, more than half of all occupied homes are almost 40 years old. A third of these were even built prior to 1970, which means they’re almost half a century old!

Your Circuit Breaker Often Trips

A circuit breaker should “trip” when it overloads—this is a safety feature that prevents hazards. But if your circuit breaker always trips, that’s a solid sign you need an electrical service upgrade. It means that the electrical panel can no longer handle your electricity requirements.

Lights Keep Flickering or Usually Turns on and off

Do your house lights flicker when you power on your air conditioner? Perhaps they go on and off whenever you run any high-wattage appliance. Either way, this can mean that your electrical panel is already going beyond its capacity.

The Electrical Panel Gets Warm or Emits a Burning Smell

The heat or burning smell can indicate severe overloading. These signs can also mean a failed circuit breaker or a disconnected wire. All these issues can trigger a house fire.

Using The Best Electrical Maintenance

Using The Best Electrical Maintenance

What is Electrical Maintenance?

Advances in the design and quality of electrical components have made it possible for electrical systems to run for years without noticeable problems. While wonderful feats of engineering, well-designed electrical systems can lull building owners and operators into a false sense of security—right up until the moment the system fails. It’s for this reason, among others, that electrical maintenance is such an important part of commercial building operations.

What is Electrical Maintenance?

Electrical maintenance covers all aspects of testing, monitoring, fixing, and replacing elements of an electrical system. Usually performed by a licensed professional with a complete knowledge of the National Electric Code and local regulations, electrical maintenance covers areas as diverse as:

  • Digital communication
  • Electrical machines
  • Generators
  • Hydraulics
  • Lighting systems
  • Pneumatics
  • Surge protection
  • Transformers.

With an increased reliance on both data collection and machinery run by computer software, electrical maintenance is more vital than ever. The failure of a single component in the electrical system can cause extensive downtime or data loss.

Preventative Electrical Maintenance

Early identification of problems is a key aspect of electrical maintenance. For instance, should a back-up generator sit idle until needed, it may not start due to a number of factors. Old fuel clogging a fuel filter, uncharged starting batteries, or start switches left in the wrong mode can all prevent a smooth transition to backup power. These are basic problems, easily identified and addressed through preventative maintenance.

One of the major challenges to electrical maintenance is the nature of electrical wiring. It can be difficult to pinpoint the location of specific problems as the system is built into the building. Thermal imaging has become increasingly important in the industry for its ability to identify issues with both electrical connection points and equipment operation. By catching such problems early, electrical maintenance helps reduce unexpected power outages and protects equipment from damage.

What is electrical maintenance? It’s an aspect of building operations no commercial facility should be without. While large scale operations may have their own on-staff electricians, smaller facilities may find it more financially viable to contract with a licensed professional for scheduled electrical maintenance and servicing.



How Important is Electrical Equipment Maintenance?


This article provides insight into the maintenance requirements for overcurrent protective devices and the potential impact on the arc flash incident energy when maintenance is not performed properly. Electrical preventive maintenance and testing is one of the most important functions to be performed in order to maintain the reliability and integrity of electrical distribution systems, as well as for the protection of equipment and personnel. However, preventive maintenance of electrical systems and equipment, specifically with regard to overcurrent protective devices is often overlooked, or is performed infrequently or inadequately. An unintentional time delay in the operation of a circuit breaker, due to a sticky operating mechanism, can cause the incident energy of an arc flash to rise, sometimes dramatically

The National Electrical Code (NEC) states that overcurrent protection for conductors and equipment is provided to open the circuit if the current reaches a value that will cause an excessive or dangerous temperature in conductors or conductor insulation. With regard to circuit breakers the only way to accomplish this is through proper maintenance and testing of these devices, per the manufacturer’s instructions.


Specific maintenance and testing procedures will not be addressed in this article, however, there are three important steps that should be considered when addressing the maintenance and testing requirements for overcurrent protective devices.

  1. The first step in properly maintaining electrical equipment and overcurrent protective devices is to understand the requirements and recommendations for electrical equipment maintenance from various sources. Examples of sources include, but are not limited, to the Manufacturer’s Instructions, ANSI/NETA MTS , NFPA 70B , IEEE Std. 3007.2, NEMA AB-4 , and NFPA 70E .
  2. The second step is to provide adequate training and qualification for employees. NFPA 70E, Section 205.1 states: Employees who perform maintenance on electrical equipment and installations shall be qualified persons…and shall be trained in and familiar with, the specific maintenance procedures and tests required.

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), defines a qualified person as “One who has received training in and has demonstrated skills and knowledge in the construction and operation of electric equipment and installations and the hazards involved.” It is important that employees are properly trained and qualified to maintain electrical equipment in order to increase the equipment and system reliability, as well as enhance employee safety for all who work on, near, or interact with the equipment.

NFPA 70E states, with regard to electrical equipment maintenance :

  • Section 90.2(A), This standard addresses electrical safety-related work practices, safety-related maintenance requirements, and other administrative control for employee workplaces … In an informational note to paragraph 110.1(A) it explains that “administrative controls” include verification of proper maintenance and installation, alerting techniques, auditing requirements, and training requirements provided in the standard.
  • Section 110.1(B), Maintenance, was added to the 2015 edition of NFPA 70E to require the condition of maintenance as a part of the overall electrical safety program
  • Section 130.5 Arc Flash Risk Assessment – Take into consideration the design of the overcurrent protective device and its opening time, including its condition of maintenance
  • Section 205.3, Electrical equipment shall be maintained in accordance with manufacturers’ instructions or industry consensus standards to reduce the risk of failure and the subsequent exposure of employees to electrical hazards.
  • Section 205.4, Overcurrent protective devices shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions or industry consensus standards. Maintenance, tests, and inspections shall be documented.
  • Section 225.3, Circuit breakers that interrupt faults approaching their ratings shall be inspected and tested in accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions.
  1. The third step is to have a written, effective Electrical Preventive Maintenance (EPM) program. NFPA 70B makes several very clear statements about an effective EPM program as follows :
  • Electrical equipment deterioration is normal, but equipment failure is not inevitable. As soon as new equipment is installed, a process of normal deterioration begins. Unchecked, the deterioration process can cause malfunction or an electrical failure. An effective EPM program identifies and recognizes these factors and provides measures for coping with them.
  • In addition to normal deterioration, there are other potential causes of equipment failure that can be detected and corrected through EPM. Among these are load changes or additions, circuit alterations, improperly set or improperly selected protective devices, and changing voltage conditions.
  • A well-administered EPM program will reduce accidents, save lives, and minimize costly breakdowns and unplanned shutdowns of production equipment.
  • NFPA 70E, Chapter 2, Safety-Related Maintenance Requirements – … these requirements identify only that maintenance directly associated with employee safety … it does not prescribe specific maintenance methods or testing procedures. It is left to the employer to choose from the various maintenance methods available to satisfy the requirements.

As noted in NFPA 70E, Chapter 2, the maintenance requirements are necessary for employee safety, but this chapter does not specify reliability issues, although properly maintaining equipment will have an impact on the reliability of the electrical equipment and systems.

IEEE Std 3007.2 states: In planning an electrical preventive maintenance (EPM) program, consideration must be given to the costs of safety, the costs associated with direct losses due to equipment damage, and the indirect costs associated with downtime or lost or inefficient production.

All maintenance and testing of electrical protective devices must be accomplished in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. In the absense of the manufacturer’s instructions, the latest edition of the ANSI/NETA MTS [2] is an excellent source of information for performing the required maintenance and testing of these devices. However, the manufacturer’s time-current curves would be valuable information for properly testing each overcurrent protective device.


Maintenance and testing are essential to ensure proper protection of equipment and the safety of personnel. With regard to personnel protection, NFPA 70E requires an arc flash risk assessment be performed before anyone approaches exposed energized electrical conductors or circuit parts that have not been placed in an electrically safe work condition. NFPA 70E, Section 130.5 states that the arc flash risk assessment must take into consideration the design of the overcurrent protective device and it’s opening time, including its condition of maintenance.

All calculations for determining the incident energy of an arc flash require the arc clearing time of the overcurrent protective device. This clearing time is derived from the settings on the divice, along with the time-current curves. This information can also be obtained from a current engineering protective device coordination study, which is based on what the protective devices are supposed to do. If, for example, a low-voltage power circuit breaker has not been operated or maintained for several years and the lubrication had become sticky or hardened, the circuit breaker could take several additional cycles, seconds, minutes, or longer to clear a fault condition. This unintentional time delay could have catistrophic consequenses, due to the increase in incident energy, should an arc flash occur.

If the worker is protected based on what the circuit breaker is supposed to do and an unintentional time delay occurs, the worker could be seriously injured or killed because he/she was under protected. Maintenance is extremely important to an electrical safety program. Maintenance must be performed according to the manufacturer’s instructions, or industry consensus standard, in order to minimize the risk of having an unintentional time delay in the operation of the circuit protective devices.


In order to protect electrical equipment and personnel, proper electrical equipment preventive maintenance must be performed. The manufacturer’s instructions, or industry consensus standards, exist to assist users with electrical equipment maintenance and testing. When the overcurrent protective devices are properly maintained and tested for proper adjustments and operation, equipment damage and arc flash hazards can be limited as expected. Unfortunately many in industry think that just because the lights are on or the machines are running that everything is okay and that maintenance is not needed, because the circuit breaker is working just fine. No, the circuit breaker is not working, it is closed. Working is when an overload, ground-fault, or short-circuit occurs and the circuit breaker opens automatically in the time specified or when it is manually opened or closed. Maintenance of overcurrent protective devices is critical to electrical equipment and systems reliability, as well as for safety of personnel.


How to Build an Electrical Maintenance Program

Electrical control and distribution systems are generally complex and expensive assets that need to be effectively maintained so they operate at optimum performance over their serviceable life. It is common to find that there has been significant effort applied to managing mechanical assets, with less focus on electrical equipment.

There are many reasons as to why this is the case, but the reality is that the way asset management programs are developed should be applied equally to electrical and mechanical components of the asset.

How many of you can associate with the following situations?

  • Down days and shutdowns are not included as part of the production schedule.
  • There are few electrical tasks documented, and often the ones that are often were a “kneejerk” reaction to a one-off event.
  • Electrical maintenance spares are not kept in the store. Often, they are kept locked in cupboards and draws of individuals.
  • There are many mechanical maintenance planners, and few or no electrical planners.
  • There was no standard followed for electrical drawings and, hence, most modifications occurred with hand-drawn sketches at best.
  • Important technical information is not centrally located or managed.
  • There are few or no bills-of-material (BOMs) for electrical equipment.
  • Run-to-failure was the primary strategy for all electrical equipment.
  • There was no forward plan related to operational security of the equipment.
  • The CMMS is not effectively utilized to record failure history.
  • Many of the electricians are falling behind in their understanding of technology.

If you agreed with most of these comments, then you are working nearly 100 percent reactively and you have a lot of room for improvement.

But, where do you start? You can develop your own plan, tell people what they are now going to do and watch it all happen. Wrong! If you don’t manage the people side of the improvement, there is little hope of sustained improvement.

The People Issues

  • Acknowledge your current situation.
  • You have to believe that there is a better way of doing things. If many of the above points apply to you, then you need to know that your situation requires improvement.
  • Develop a vision for your electrical maintenance program.
  • The vision is where you want to be in the future. An example of such a vision:
  • An electrical planner will be employed within the next three months.
  • All critical equipment will have maintenance strategies developed within 12 months.
  • Strategies for less-critical equipment will be developed within 24 months.
  • A system for the upgrade and management of electrical drawings will be developed and implemented in the next 12 months.
  • All strategies will maximize the use of condition-based maintenance.
  • Tradesmen and other relevant personnel will be trained so they can effectively apply strategies.
  • Implement down days for electrical equipment.
  • Get the support from the electrical work group. Discuss your plans for the future with your work group. After all, they know the plant the best. Ask them for ideas to be included in the vision. It’s far better for the group to support the vision and have a feeling of ownership.
  • Gain support from your management. If management is not willing to support your vision, then there is little chance of success. Document your vision, highlighting the benefits and prospective gains, and your ideas! Be prepared for some hard questions and be confident to back your judgment.
  • The Practical Issues
  • Resources will be required to effectively implement changes. As part of your vision presented to management, it should have been made clear that resources are required to make significant improvements to your electrical maintenance program. This doesn’t necessarily mean you need more people. Redeploying internal labor or hiring contractors on a part-time basis usually makes more sense. As your program starts taking effect, the efficiency gains will offset the loss of labor on the floor.
  • Understand the criticality of your electrical assets. You could use a criticality-ranking tool for this, but if your assets have been around for some time, usually your employees will have a fairly clear understanding of this. The most critical assets will be your starting point.



Importance of Proper and Timely Electrical Maintenance

When regular electrical maintenance checks are carried out for a home, various unwelcomed mishaps associated with electricity get avoided in an opportune manner. When such mishaps are avoided, it makes it easy to escape unplanned and often very high expenses of repairing, or even replacing badly affected electrical devices due to small problems that would have otherwise been detected and dealt with earlier.

In terms of home safety, the proper and timely maintenance of key electrical components of a home ensures that safety is not only activated in multiple ways, but upheld as well. Below are four key points where proper and timely electrical maintenance translates directly to home safety:

  • Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) In general, having your home’s HVAC system working well is a welcomed convenience. However, there are instances where the proper working of the HVAC could mean more than just a convenience. Take for instance, a home where there are senior citizens, small children or even a sick person; for such people, extreme heat variations, whether up or down on the thermometer, can result in life threatening complications.Such extreme heat variations would only happen in a malfunctioning HVAC system, and this is something that would have been avoided altogether through properly scheduled electrical maintenance of all its components in a timely manner like say, before the onset of winter or summer.
  • Outdoor Lighting The outdoor lighting in your home does a lot for your home safety. For one, it ensures that your porches and walkways are well lit and thus safe for both you and your guests at night. The other thing that they do for your home’s safety is deter thieves and burglars, who always prefer to operate in the dark. The light fixtures, bulbs and lines of your outdoor lighting require regular checks and replacements because of the nature of the outdoors. Having a contracted electrician carry out such checks on a regular basis will ensure that at no point will your outdoors be dark.
  • DIY Risks The urge to do things yourself when it comes to taking care of your home is always there, and often comes with a great feeling of satisfaction and fulfillment. Even as DIY comes off as good thing, there are those things that are advisably better left to the experts, and electrical repairs top that list. With a properly planned electrical maintenance schedule and a reliable contractor, you should never have the need to attempt to replace your old wiring or something like that, because that would be a dangerous thing to attempt a DIY on.
  • Fire Hazards A home fire can be very devastating to the homeowner, and that is to say the least since such fires can even result in the loss of lives. Electrical faults are one of the leading causes of fires in homes, and that almost always occurs as a result of problems associated with the wiring. Heat from the wiring can, over time, degrade their protective covering to a point where it gets completely broken down. When that happens, bare wires are left at the mercy of their getting in contact with each other, shorting and sparking up a fire right there within the walls of your home, or other areas where these lines run.There are normally signs that would, if noted, alert you when your wiring has become old and degraded. These include the constant tripping of breaker switches, those brown and discolored wall sockets or outlets, and the occasional electrical shocks that you get when plugging in an appliance or simply touching it while it is plugged in.

However, when you are at that point of being able to notice those signs, it often means that the problems with your wiring are at their extreme. The best thing is to have regular checks done by licensed electrical contractors to always be on the safe side.


Importance Of Electrical Installation And Maintenance

Proper installation and maintenance is very important in both commercial and residential facilities. A faulty wiring that is not immediately given attention can result into a greater danger such as fire and electrocution.

Hiring a qualified or certified electrician is crucial in proper installation and maintenance. Especially in complicated wiring, which may require top level skills, only certified electricians are able to keep the work clean and safe. Listed below are the importance of proper installation and maintenance for your home or business edifice.

Good installation and maintenance is equivalent to safety

A rule of thumb says that the worse it looks, the less likely the installation has been completed by a professional. When wirings are properly installed, wires are basically well tightened up and aligned in proper places. Some high voltage wirings are sealed in insulators to avoid accidents and unexpected electrocution. Professional electricians also follow a certain pattern or design in wiring to reflect good installations. For instance, high-voltage wires are usually hidden behind walls, which serve as their insulators. This keeps the place’s surroundings clean and arranged while people that are passing by are safe from potential injuries caused by faulty wiring.

Proper labeling saves money and time

Proper installations require clear labeling on wiring with tags, connection jacks, and other fixtures. Some wires also have different colors to determine their functions. When wires are in proper places, it would be easy for the electrician to determine which wire needs fixtures using color coding. The lesser time the electrician would spend for fixture, the lesser cost you would pay especially if the electrician charges per hour.

Proper maintenance paves the way for efficiency

Proper maintenance can be achieved by doing a regular system audit to check for the simplest fix faults, which may arise into bigger problems. This is very essential especially for quality control whether or not your business edifice is big. For further stage of quality control, proper maintenance can also be used for future installation needs.

During maintenance, listed below are some of the common issues that electricians usually watch out for:

  • Wiring problems which can be evident through smells of ozone or burning plastic
  • Damage or scratch marks on the surface of electrical connections
  • Previous history or constant issue on overheating appliances
  • Wires submerged on stock water in the basement or ceiling caused by leaking pipes or heavy rains
  • Flickering plugs or appliances
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